Certificates of origin (CO) verify a product’s country of origin and state where the product was manufactured, produced or processed, though this can become more complicated when raw materials come from one country and a product is then manufactured in another.
In many countries it is now a requirement to demonstrate that you “know your customer”. Some people now talk about the need to “know your business” (KYB) and use the phrase “know your customer” (KYC) to refer to individuals.
Many countries use a system of advance customs rulings (ACR), more properly known as advance rulings on classification, origin and valuation. The objective is to provide decisions on product classification, origin and valuation prior to their import or export. This offers traders certainty and predictability and allows them to make informed business decisions.
The import and export of goods requires a written contract. The terms of this contract must be clearly understandable by both the exporter and the importer, even if they do not speak the same language, and even if their two countries have different business practices and legal systems.