Many countries seek to discourage imports through the imposition of tariffs, quotas and non-tariff barriers (NTBs) though they may agree to make concessions to selected countries, usually in exchange for some sort of trade agreement.
Certificates of origin (CO) verify a product’s country of origin and state where the product was manufactured, produced or processed, though this can become more complicated when raw materials come from one country and a product is then manufactured in another.
Many countries use a system of advance customs rulings (ACR), more properly known as advance rulings on classification, origin and valuation. The objective is to provide decisions on product classification, origin and valuation prior to their import or export. This offers traders certainty and predictability and allows them to make informed business decisions.